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GENITAL HPV INFECTION – WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is a virus that infect the epithelium and can be passed from person to person through skin-to-skin contact. More than 120 HPV types have been identified. Most HPV types infect the cutaneous epithelium and can cause common skin warts. About 40 types infect the genital areas of men and women.

HPV is transmitted by direct contact with an infected person. Transmission occurs most frequently with sexual intercourse but can occur following non-penetrative sexual activity. Other risk factors are young age at sexual initiation, number of pregnancies, genetic factors, smoking, and lack of circumcision of male partner.

Most HPV infections are asymptomatic, but high-risk (oncogenic) HPV types are detected in 99 % cervical cancer. Cervical cancer is the 2nd leading cause of cancer deaths among women around the world.

There are things to do to lower the chances of getting HPV.
Get vaccinated. There are two types of HPV vaccines which are licensed by The Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The bivalent HPV vaccine prevent two HPV types, 16 and 18, which cause 70 % of cervical cancers. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine prevent four HPV types, 16 and 18, as well as 6 and 11, which cause 90 % of genital warts.

       HPV vaccine is given as 3-dose series.
       1st dose    now
       2nd dose    1 to 2 month(s) after dose 1
       3rd dose    6 months after dose 1
Additional (booster) doses are not recommended

HPV vaccine for women. The bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines both can be administered to women population. Recommended schedule for the vaccine to be effectively administered is from the age of 9 – 26 year-old and / before sexually active. Vaccine can be given up to 55 year old women. This vaccine is not recommended for pregnant women.
HPV vaccine for men. Only the quadrivalent vaccine can be administered to men. Age group recommended is 9 – 26 year old men.
Get screened. Routine screening for women aged 21 to 65 years old can prevent cervical cancer. A Pap Test, which is able to detect abnormal cell changes of the cervix, along with the HPV Test are highly effective screening tools.

Guarded sexual behavior. HPV transmission can be reduced but not eliminated with the use of condoms. Be in a monogamous relationship.

There is no specific treatment for HPV infection. Medical management depends on treatment of the specific clinical manifestation of the infection.

“I will come back from heaven to look after my boys.”
Jade Goody
British Reality TV Star, died of cervical cancer in March 2009, aged 27

Referensi :
  1. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). Human papillomavirus Infection. 2014.
  2. Center Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Human papillomavirus vaccination. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). 2014.
  3. WHO. National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention. 2014.
  4. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures. 2016.
  5. Ikatan Dokter Anak Indonesia (IDAI). Jadwal Imunisasi Anak Umur 0 – 18 tahun. 2014.
  6. Perhimpunan Dokter Spesialis Penyakit Dalam Indonesia (PAPDI). Jadwal Imunisasi Dewasa. 2013.

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